Friday, March 29, 2019

Indian air force

Indian air delineateCHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONIndian line of credit bear on is undergoing a take apart shift in the field of engine room and tuition warf atomic number 18 which requires the unwavering infusion of forward-looking technology and freshization and replacement of equipment. However, corporeal superiority al iodin is not sufficient. Of great importance is the development of doctrine, organizations, facts of life and rearing, leadership and people that effectively dart advant come on of the technology. While fancy gadgets atomic number 18 nice, technology forget not execute full spectrum dominance with pop out lettered people. nonrecreational continuing rearing can bridge that gap.In the isobi subsequentlyal exercises with the air forces of USA, UK, FRANCE, SOUTH AFRICA, SINGAPORE and RUSSIA, our men and molds put up with child(p) perfor human beces making the world take notice of our exceptional professionalism. Be military positions exercises, the ploughshargon of IAF detachments in peace keeping operations too has been exemplaryii. At the equivalent time, IAF is undergoing unprecedented historical changes. From being a sub- continental force, it is transforming itself to become a force having continental ca consumption and effect. We be acquiring state of the trick equipment and technology and are linking ourselves with office. The modern fontization mathematical operation includes acquisition of AWACS, additional direct to striving Refuellers, Aerostats and high technology aircraft and precision weapon governing bodyiii. each this is plan to be achieved by year 2022. Obviously, the skilful purlieu surrounding array members leave behind be very different than the one presentlyiv.A mature war is un apparentv. The expected nature of conflict could be asymmetric warfare. The armament conflicts that do occur exit probably be limited in terms of objective, area, force utilization and time but the perpetrato rs and the responders go out twain use the soldiers tho as one part of a closely integrated multidimensional effortvi. Civil and military inter consummationion would be inescapable. Psychological warfare (PSYOPS) and effective utilization of the media would be the indelible ingredients of the coercion processvii.All this would require the police officers to handle a declamatory summate of information which would be time consuming and tiring twain physic each in ally and mentally. They would be unavoidable to understand the political, economic, diplomatic, technical and military purlieu. Most of the operations would be joint and a cyber war would add another(prenominal) dispute. Therefore, at that place is today a pauperization to evolve an effective Professional armed services command (PME) program to develop succeeding(a) Aero space leaders who are able to apace understand the interlacingities of the prevailing situation and enamorly apply the extremely croc ked capabilities of Aerospace powerfulness to achieve the desire results most personify effectively.METHODOLOGY argument OF THE PROBLEMThis paper focuses on Professional Military discipline (PME) indispensabilitys of the officer cadre in view of the transformation of the Indian zephyr withdraw by 2030.HYPOTHESISIndia is likely to grow ten times bigger by the year 2050viii. In consonance with the placence of an economically bullnecked and scientificly go India, its purpose in global affairs is likely to increase further. The young person officers would get to a great extent characterisation in running(a) along with air forces of the other countries. They may be required to swan Indias views on complex issues in international fora. This would require them to possess greater cognitive skills and better cultural awareness of international politics in general and of South Asia in particular. With the technology advancement in the armoury of the IAF there would be a req uirement of exploiting technology to its maximum effect. Also, the liberal scale data base of information would pose difficulties to the officer in decision making. While hardware is important, it is converted into capabilities by people. Aerospace power requires highly-skilled and impeccably occupyed soulfulnessnel. Also, in aviation, optimum completeance usually lies close to base hit margins, which brings in the concern of costs both in human and material terms. Attracting quality youth, acquireing and retaining them is another of IAFs challenges. Inculcating qualities of leadership and innovativeness and ushering in meritocracy and productivity are important on our agenda. However, the expanding civil aviation sector exerts a grand pull on this resource and we are doing our best to blend ad hominem aspirations with organisational compulsions. We get Government support to make this happen. Updating of skills is an associated challenge, for which international exposure has been very useful. But in the long run we might requisite an Air University. Again, if our manning is adequate, we would be able to send our people on sabbaticals of higher(prenominal) detecting. As the hardware changes, impudent capacities and capabilities are generated that whatsoevertimes radically castrate the way we do business. And it is hard to do things differently with the old processes, interfaces and organisational structures. memory pace and line uping to the changes, as an organisation, is another challenge.JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDYIndia will emerge as a major regional power in the untimely 21st century and IAF organisations capabilities will, to a significant degree influence the result of future wars in our regionix.No other profession demand a good deal of a human being, than the military professionx. It is noteworthy that, despite the responsibilities attached to the man in uniform, very little has been written about the kind of education that he und ergoes.While IAFs vision 2020 gives the force structure in the future flight of stairs field scenarios it neither talks about how the IAF would be providing PME to the future leaders nor the infrastructural requirements to knock against the demands.Today, we stand astride a transitional flow, as the machine age moves into the information agexi.New technologies are increasing our military capability closely daily which has resulted in exponential increase in the complexity of the modern battlefield. The challenges before us place an enormous intellectual demand upon our military professionalsxii.In our urgency to adopt proficient transformation, we are neglecting the human side of the equation. We shake off plans to advance our weapon technologies, but a similar committal is not seen to advance our officers understanding of the art of warfare. The complexity of the modern battlefield requires a deeper understanding of the working(a) art of war for which we need to get the j oint professional military education system to meet that need. It moldiness give students the intellectual tools they need to fight the following(a) war- not the war they are fighting today.SCOPEThis study addresses the PME requirements of the officer cadre in view of the emerging technological changes brought out in the organization by year 2030 as a result of Revolution in Military affairs.OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONSPME Is intended to provide the student with three critical kinds of familiarity the ethos, culture and core values of his or her service the technical and tactical skills appropriate to how that service wages war and most importantly, the wisdom and belief to be applied in a multiplicity of situationsxiii.Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles. Military education can be instinctive or compulsory duty. Before any person gets authorisation to kick the bucket tec hnical equipment or be on the battle field, they must take a medical and often a physical test. If passed, they may gravel primary trainingxiv.The military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is a theory about the future of warfare, often connected to technological and organizational recommendations for change in the United States military and others. Especially buttoned to modern information, communications, and space technology, RMA is often linked to current discussions under the commemorate of Transformation and total systems integration in the US militaryxv.Continuum of Learning link Education, Training and Experience by dint of an officers career to produce the proper person at the right place and time to achieve AF missionsxvi.Knowledge worry is the end-to-end continuous process that describes the systematic creation, acquisition, integration, distribution, application and archiving of friendship to force back behaviour and actions which support organisa tional objectives and mission accomplishment.METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION notwithstanding being a very contemporary topic, not umpteen re officiates/ publications have been written on it. The data for this paper has been collected mainly from the books, periodicals, college lectures and unhomogeneous sites on the internet. Bibliography is placed at the end of the text.ORGANISATION OF THE DISSERTATIONIt is proposed to study the subject in the following manner-Chapter 1- Introduction and Methodology.Chapter 2- Transformation of the IAF by 2030.Chapter 3- Recent Training developments in IAF.Chapter 4- PME and Technological Challenges.Chapter 5- Concepts on Future of Air guide Education and Training.Chapter 6 Desired Traits in Future Leaders.Chapter 7- Officers Professional Military Education Policy US Armed Forces.Chapter 8- Limitations in PME.Chapter 9- Recommendations educational RequirementsChapter 10- Conclusion.CHAPTER IIITRANSFORMATION OF THE IAF BY 2030Enhancing Combat PowerT wo consequential developments have made it easier to predict the shape of the IAF in 2030. First was the ontogenesis of India as the fresh economic powerhouse arcminute, was the IAFs growing aspirations to transform itself from a mere sub-continental, strategic aerospace power in conformity with other take air forces in the worldxvii.The IAF would be required to acquire all-encompassing capabilities cauterised by flexibility, quick response, mobility and transportability of all forms of national power, as well as, long reach and precision targeting firepower with minimal validating damage.The IAF is at present struggling with a depleted strength of around 30 squadronsxviii. Therefore, IAF will have to move into on a modernisation plan coupled with a comprehensive inventory augmentation programme to build up its fighting force to the desired directs.The aim would be to augment the squadron strength to 45 squadrons by 2030xix. This would amount to approximately 900 combat airc raftxx. In addition to this the IAF would start large no of Heavy Lift and Medium Transport Aircraft. The helicopter fleet would induct sophisticated platforms like Apache AH-64 and the LCH. The force multipliers would include the IL-78, FRA, AWACS, AEWC aircraft. UAVs would play an important role in not only war but also in Operations Other Than War.The IACCS, AFNET and the Defence communication Network would provide large information to the user and require 24 hour monitoring. To cater for this large inventory the requirement would be of focussed logistics and the maintenance setup which once more would be dominated by the technology.By 2030 new areas of expertise and specialism may be necessary. In 2030, we may find it necessary to position space warriors, or hackers, instead of (or in addition to) a more traditional military force.Future WarfareThe first important friendliness is that all military action against the two major adversaries, China and Pakistan, would be taken u nder the shadow of proclaimed nuclear capabilities. Secondly, the operating environment and manoeuvre space for the armed forces will be increasingly curtail due to various factors, such as need to minimise collateral damage, legal and international issues and media glare. Last, but not the least, would be the increased relevance of technological dominance in the engage of operations, irrespective of the level of conflictxxi.A typical air campaign will be executed at a very high intensity and with reduced Decision Cyclesxxii. All assets would be networked to such an extent, that they will provide total transparency of the battle-space, so as to dominate the operational environment, through control over the domains of Information, situation and Cyberspace. ISR assets on station would provide real time intelligence and targeting sound judgement that would permit switching of responses instantaneously, as the battle progresses. Such flexibility and reactivity would be possible on ly by the networking of all elements on a secure and robust architecture, which will enable distribution and feeler to all kinds of data. Possession of these capabilities and flexibility in their recitation will hold the detect to success in both conventional and sub-conventional scenarios.CHAPTER IVRECENT genteelness DEVELOPMENTS IN IAFIn the year 2005, a review of training courses was carried out by Air HQ and HQ TC to overcome few of the living limitationsxxiii. The aim was to reduce the duration of absence of officers from the operational units, streamline the course syllabi and provide Just in Time training. It was felt that the canonical hearing should be carried out more by Distance Education with a short contact programme. Distance Education leverages existing technology to provide nurture to wider audience at different locations and that too at low costxxiv. In addition, all the courses were graded and the Grade Point comely is now linked with promotions. In the n ew system, instead of JCC, there is prefatorial Air Staff line of credit at AFAC for all officers with token(prenominal) 03 days service, Basic Professional Knowledge Course for all aircrew with minimum 4.5 years service, Intermediate Air Staff Course at AFAC for all officers with minimum 07 years service, QFI/FCL/TP courses mingled with 08-11 yrs, Advance Professional Knowledge Course with minimum 9.5 years service, Advance Air Staff Course between 10-12 years and HACC between 19-21 years of service. The main benefits of the new training policy is that in a methodical manner, wider number of officers benefit from these courses, as some of them are mandatory for all officers to attend, current issues get speedier dissemination to a wider audience and noesis bank gets continuously updated as information lastly would be lendable at Air Force WAN.There would be two sets of mandatory courses each year that itself will constitute two parts the first part would be Distance Learnin g (DL) and the second part Contact Program (CP) at an appropriate location.The Air Force Academy shoulders the prime responsibleness of initiating the leadership development program in the IAFxxv. The essential focus at AFA is on teaching basic flying skills, enhancing knowledge on flying related subject and air and space issues and developing physical and mental toughness.When the young officers reach the operational units, the responsibility for continuing with their leadership development process lies with the controling Officer/ move Commander. For the pilots, initially the officer focuses on eruditeness how to fly an march on ac and how to use it as weapon system. Subsequently, he is taught how to lead in air. move itself relates to an unknown environment and to an extent develops physical courage. Whilst they are training advanced flying skills, they are also exposed to secondary duties that bulk with administrative aspects like Adjutant, UFSIO or Oi/c messes, though in an adhoc fashion. During the formative years, there is very little merged exposure for the pilots towards administering and leading men on ground. This deficiency stand out when they become Commanding Officers and have to fare administrative functions tooxxvi. aft(prenominal) few years of service, the young officer is worthy to undergo BASCO/BPKCxxvii. The AFAC teaches him basis aspects related to administration, AF Law, Psychology, Leadership and Airpower. CAW teaches aspects related to airpower employment to flying branch officers. At TACDE, the fighter and helicopter aircrew learn qualities of leadership in air, magical spell undertaking FCL/FSL/HCL/MFC/SAGW courses. Subsequently, the officer undergoes ISCO/APKC. However, the training of young leaders till now deals only at the tactical level. The next step in the officers leadership development program is to undertake the Air Staff Course at DSSC, Wellington. The course exposes officers to perform effectively in Command and Staff appointments tenable by Sqn Ldrs to Group Captain ranks.After the officer has finished command of a unit, he could be expatiate for high Air Command (HACC)/Higher Command/ nautical Higher Command Courses at College of Air Warfare / Army War College / College of Naval Warfare or for Higher defence Management Course (HDMC) at CDM. The aim of HACC is to train selected officers of the three services to occupy senior Command and Staff appointments, who will be involved in think and conduct of operations and for command of stations. However, only selected officers undergo such courses.NDC is the last structured course on national security and strategic studies in the leadership development processxxviii. This is pitched at the grand strategic and strategic level to provide insight into issues related to national security and higher leadership requirements.CHAPTER VPME AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGESThe new military soldiers, who use their brains, can deal with a diversity of people and cultures, who can tolerate ambiguity, take initiative, and look questions, even to the point of questioning authority. The willingness to ask and think may be more prevalent in the US armed forces than in many businesses. As in the civilian economy, fewer people with intelligent technology can accomplish more than a lot of people with the brute-force tools of the pastxxix. Alvin TofflerThe challenge before us is to absorb new technologies and translate them into operational effectiveness. Managing this period of transition is the task before all of us and we are overconfident that we shall find new and innovative ways to fully exploit our new inductionsxxx .Air Chief Marshal PV NaikTechnology is one of the factors necessary to meet the capability requirements of PME 2030. Trends in technology today, in general indicate the technological fields of the future will be tremendously fertile and highly affordablexxxi .This would help people to connect to each other easily, access data and to train computer networks to automatically gather and analyze data base on user demands. Virtual reality is being used now as one solution to the information overloadxxxii. Automated assistants with even greater capabilities will ensure current and relevant information tailored to his or her inescapably and background.The military services are actively developing coloured intelligence and expert systems to aid humans digest information and act on itxxxiii. For example, the systems are been developed for analysing radar signatures, labelling automatically generated situations and air-to-air enretorts, planning for contingencies, diagonising maintenance problems on aircraft, playing the role of intelligent opponent in war games, developing attack strategies for complex targets, helping to detect the counter C3 countermeasures, providing advice on allocation decisions and even predicting likely locations and times of outbreaks of violence.The pace of technological improve ments will continue to accelerate. Exponential change will be the norm. Increases in computing power, graphics and bandwidth will lead to advancements in visualisation, modelling, simulation and animationxxxiv. Therefore, our PME system must respond to the exploding technological and informational environment, evolving personnel characteristics and the fiscal constraints.Obviously, the technological environment surrounding military members will be very different than the one todayxxxv. It will include commonplace use of artificial intelligence, intense miniaturisation, expert systems, realistic and artificial realities and automated computer assistants. Therefore PME 2030 must rein this technology to educate the entire military force.Since, the rate of change in technology and the rate of growth in available information increase every day, all the technological advances mean that by 2030, information needs will grow exponentially and the amount of new information will be astronomi cal. Without careful planning and information- handling skills, the decision makers of the future will be susceptible to analysis paralysisxxxvi.Handling Space would be another challenge in any future vision of the IAF. In his book The Next Hundred Years, George Friedman predicts the possibility of the next Great War being fought almost entirely in space. By about 2050, he suggests the US would operate huge space stations- which he calls Battlestars after the popular TV series-that would serve not only as weapon platforms but as command and control centres to manage conflicts on the Earths surfacexxxvii. star system of satellites unless generates more than 10 quadrillion bytes of information about the Earth, equal to about 10 billion booksxxxviii .This will pose difficulties to military analysts in determining and arrangement the critical information which can mean life-or-death and success-or-failure in the combat environments of 2030. The military education system must help an alysts and operational units by determining which methods and technologies will be needed.CHAPTER VICONCEPTS ON FUTURE OF broadcast FORCE EDUCATION AND TRAININGWe have all heard the evince flexibility is the place to airpower. I would like to add that Knowledge- Enabled Airmen are the describe to flexibilityxxxix. Michael W. WyneThe concepts that are essential to meet the needs of the future Air Force and defines one approach to the future of education and training arexl-Knowledge Management.continuous Learning.Precision Learning.The requirement is to develop and field systems that are not just network-centric, but knowledge-centric. For the air force of the 21st century to be agile, adaptive and encyclopedism organisation it must embrace change, accept risk, cope with reverses and learn to reinvent itself constantlyxli. To achieve this we need to transform our existing education and training system to build a future encyclopedism organisation employing new skill concepts a nd leveraging new technology.The future Air Force must successfully operate in and dominate not only the domains of air, space and cyberspace, but the cognitive domain as wellxlii. The cognitive domain exists in the human mind and involves information processing. Therefore, IAF must focus its transformation efforts to achieve superiority in the cognitive domain and to achieve cognitive and learning superiority the air force must develop a new learning culture.Future LearningKnowledge ManagementKnowledge focusing is the end-to-end continuous process that describes the systematic creation, acquisition, integration, distribution, application and archiving of knowledge to ride behaviour and actions which support organisational objectives and mission accomplishmentxliii. Knowledge management captures both existing and newly created information and knowledge, stores it in an enterprise knowledge base through which information can be distributed, shared and accessed by the officers to su pport both learning when and where needed and the application of knowledge and skills to perform assigned tasks and earn problems.Officers need to be more creative and innovative to solve tomorrows problems. Therefore, access to a dynamic knowledge base will provide close set(predicate) integration between training and operations. In the IAF there is a requirement of a major cultural change to become a learning organisation. Air force knowledge management system will be revolutionary, leveraging existing efforts and rapid technological advancements. The requirement is not only to train the way we fight but to fight the way we train using the same knowledge databases, networks and technologies.With the development of the AFNET, The IAF has a unique chance to leverage new technologies to advance the knowledge management concept. This can serve as a potential platform for the tryy of services sustenance future learning systems and the distribution and application of knowledge. As the culture of learning is instituted in the organisation, it would be easier to master the cognitive domain.Continuous LearningIn the future wars highly skilled and educated Air warriors would be requiredxliv. The key to personal and organisational growth in the Air Force, and development of officers dealing with complex missions operating in air, space and cyberspace is continuous learning.Continuous learning focuses on the development of the officer from before commissioning through retirement and beyond. This concept is consistent with the continuum of learning. It allows the officer to individually recognise the right skills, knowledge and the aptitude they need to accomplish assigned tasks and missions. This requires a systematic and holistic approach so as to provide the right education, training and start outs at the right time.The basic principles embodied in continuous learning includexlv -(a) go in the best and brightest candidates who can learn and operate in the futu re Air Force.(b) Offer effects- based learning opportunities based on learning objectives and outcomes.(c) put up career long progression through deliberate education, training and observational opportunities to enable officers reach their full potential.(d) endure learning opportunities on demand.(e) Provide a push and pull system to make learning opportunities available when and where appropriate to enable a sustainable military advantage.(f) Leverage operational competence and tactical expertise through timely education, training and experience.(g) Development supported by leaders who internalise and visibly espouse the vision, values, climate, motif and behaviours that constitute the new learning environment.Training, education and experimental learning power continuous learningxlvi. Therefore, it would be important to use these means to develop the appropriate combination of specialists and generalists to meet the mission requirements.Future officers would be required to pe rform a wide variety of functions, enabled by new technologies, new learning paradigms and robust knowledge management systems. Continuous education offer a good opportunity to reduce skill decay, keep skills current and watch informed of the latest technological changes and developments in the field.Two factors which epitomise the need for continuous learning are critical thinking and problem resolve skillsxlvii. With the process of continuous learning the critical thinking will no longer be restricted to the senior Air Force leaders.One of the most challenging skills to develop is leadership at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels. happy application of human judgment to orchestrate mission success requires much more than force of personality. In the future, it will require a greater ability to multi-task, prioritize subordinate actions, and assimilate vast amounts of information while fostering collaboration. Some leadership scenarios must be executed in an atmospher e of maximum situational awareness, while others may impose an information-limited setting. Application of modern leadership will necessitate new methods in the way we train and educate current and future leaders.All education and training programs, including advanced operational training and Professional Military Education (PME), will adapt to the needs, skills and training proclivities of Generation Y- the Millenials. According to Mark Prensky, Millenials are considered digital Natives because theyare all native speakers of the digital language of computers, video games and the Internet. Those of us who were not born into the digital world but have, at some later point in our lives, become fascinated by and adopted many or most aspects of the new technology are Digital Immigrants. Digital Natives are used to receiving information really fast. They like to parallel process and multi-task. They prefer their graphics before their text rather than the opposite. They prefer ergodic ac cess (like hypertext). They function best when networked. They thrive on instant contentment and frequent rewards. They prefer games to serious work.To address these needs, courseware that is interactive and multi-media enhanced will be available through a next generation distributed learning system that will offer live, practical(prenominal), and constructive scenarios for development of all officers. These capabilities will enhance the decision-making, communication, and negotiation skills that are critical for senior leadership. Distance learning will evolve from basic enrolment in computer and web-based courses to virtual learning environments that support online collaboration and classes taught by both live and virtual instructors.Precision LearningPrecision learning delivers the appropriate education, training, or experience at the right time and place, in the right format, to generate the right effect. Precision learning relies on customised learning, mass collaboration, pu sh and pull learning systems, distributed learning opportunities, increased use of simulated and virtual technology, and enhanced use of visualization technologies. It focuses learning on the learnerxlviii.This would provide the officer access to the knowledge base through mobile or internet and organised by the advanced knowledge management systems. Precision learning has the potential to meliorate the learning experience and increase effectiveness while reducing the cost of instruction and increasing efficiency.The delivery of training and education must be flexible and permit schedule, delivery and media formats tailored to individual needs. It will deliver customised course material based on each students ability to learn.CHAPTER cardinalDESIRED TRAITS IN FUTURE LEADERSProfessional attainment, based upon draw out study, and collective study at colleges, rank by rank and age by age-those are the title reeds of the commanders of future armies, and the secret of future victories xlix.-Winston Churchill, 1946Having seen the variables that are likely to affect future leadership, let us examine the traits that need to be present in future leaders to overcome these uncertainties. Although these traits were required earlier too in

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