Sunday, September 1, 2019
Nigeria and South Africa Essay
The literature review was crucial to this dissertation since it was the major part of the dissertation that examined several secondary sources and reinforced the aim which is to critically analyse and investigate the extent to which physical infrastructure has influenced the tourism industry in Nigeria compared to South Africa. This dissertation has an adapted version of HandyÃ¢â¬â¢s (1994) Product Lifecycle Model because it shows the development of physical infrastructure in regards to accessibility within Nigeria and South Africa. This dissertation also has ButlerÃ¢â¬â¢s TALC Model (1980) to demonstrate the development of tourism in Nigeria and South Africa. The dissertation assesses the impacts of the 3 AÃ¢â¬â¢s accessibility, Amenities and Ancillary Services by comparing Nigeria to South Africa. The dissertation answers whether physical infrastructure has positively or negatively influenced Nigeria and South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism industries. This dissertation also includes the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index indicators and the Global Competitiveness index indicators in order to compare the infrastructure rankings in Nigeria and South Africa. There are conclusions which evaluate what the researcher found throughout the dissertation. The recommendations stem from what the researcher discovered and discussed in the conclusions within the dissertation. Aim and Objectives Aim To critically analyse and investigate the extent to which physical infrastructure has influenced the tourism industry in Nigeria compared to South Africa. Objectives To scrutinise secondary research which discusses the state of physical infrastructure. To assess the impacts of the 3 AÃ¢â¬â¢s in Nigeria in comparisons to South Africa. To find out whether physical infrastructure had a positive or negative influence on both countries tourism industries. To critically analyse competitiveness indicators in relation to other data sources. To make several recommendations based on the conclusions in this dissertation. Rationale The main purpose of this dissertation is to answer the question- How has physical infrastructure influenced the tourism industry in Nigeria in comparison to South Africa? There are various reasons to why this dissertation is being written. The first reason is there is a gap in academic literature seeing that there is no existing research that compares how physical infrastructure has influenced the tourism industry in Nigeria and South Africa. This could be due to the fact that there are no qualified researchers who have been focusing on documenting such research since researchers may view Nigeria and South Africa as developing economies and would rather conduct research on other countries like England or United States of America. The second reason is that the researcher would be able to explore the aim in great detail through the usage of secondary research and secondary data. Nigeria and South Africa were chosen because both countries have significant roles and influence on the African Continent. Kwintessential (2011) states: Ã¢â¬Å"Along with South Africa, Nigeria is considered a super-power in the African continent. Ã¢â¬ Tourists frequently visit Nigeria and South Africa. In 2009/ 2010, more than forty-nine million tourists travelled to Africa. The top ten African Countries were Morocco which had nine point twenty-nine million tourists, South Africa had eight point nine million tourists and Nigeria had one point forty-one million tourists (TV3news, 2011). In 2011 NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s new President Goodluck Jonathan commissioned twenty-five trains and also in 2011 South Africa Transport Minister Sibusiso Ndebele introduced a law called Road Transport Management System (RTMS) which was implemented successfully. Secondary data from 2009, 2010 and 2011 was used because information linked to the Access, Amenities and Ancillary Services was available as major events closely linked to Access, Amenities and Ancillary Services occurred in Nigeria and South Africa. Contribution Secondary data would be required since quantitative data, such as statistical figures are of great importance because they are needed in order to effectively support the findings in this dissertation. The 3 AÃ¢â¬â¢s Accessibility, Amenities and Ancillary Services According to Buhalis (2000) there are six AÃ¢â¬â¢s which are Attractions, Accessibility, Amenities, Available Packages, Activities and Ancillary Services however for the purpose of this research, this dissertation will only focus on three AÃ¢â¬â¢s which are Accessibility, Amenities and Ancillary Services as tourists take these three AÃ¢â¬â¢s into consideration when travelling aboard. Accessibility is essential as it enables tourists to travel to visit numerous places within Nigeria and South Africa. Hall et al (2006) refers to Butler (1980) and Wolfe (1952) who believe that accessibility is important seeing that they acknowledge that when accessibility improves an area would experience a growth in tourist numbers. Amenities are vital since tourists need to stay and sleep in accommodation whilst in Nigeria and South Africa. Bhatia (2006) and Hall (2009) agree that accommodation gives tourists the opportunity to spend some time in a destination. Ancillary Services for instance medical facilities like hospitals are important because tourists may need medical assistance so travel insurance is recommended to cover medical emergencies. Cowie (2011) reveals that The Association of British Insurers (ABI) believe there has been an increase in the number of travel insurance claims from holidaymakers particularly holidaymakers over the age of sixty-five.